Skip to Main Content

We have a new app!

Take the Access library with you wherever you go—easy access to books, videos, images, podcasts, personalized features, and more.

Download the Access App here: iOS and Android

Key Cardiovascular Variables and Their Normal Determinants1


CO = SV × HR


Ejection fraction = SV/EDV

SVpumpventricular={ (+)cardiac preload (via effect on EDV)(+)cardiac contractility (via effect on ESV)()cardiac afterload (via effect on ESV)

Cardiac preload ∝PCV(“∝” means “is proportional to”

PCVvolumecentral blood={ (+)total blood volume(+)peripheral venous tone(+)skeletal muscle pump(+)respiratory pump()standing()cardiac output

Venous tone ←{(+)↑ sympathetic activity (via NE, α-receptors)

Contractility cellsventricular{(+) sympathetic activity (via NE, β-receptors)

Cardiac afterload P¯A

HRfiring rateSA node cell{ (+)sympathetic activity (via NE, β-receptors)()parasympathetic activity (via ACh)

TPRtonearteriolar{ (+)sympathetic activity (via NE, α-receptors)()local metabolites(local metabolic rate)


1P¯A, mean arterial pressure; CO, cardiac output; TPR, total peripheral resistance; SV, stroke volume; HR, heart rate; ESV, end-systolic volume; EDV, end-diastolic volume; PCV, central venous pressure; NE, norepinephrine; ACh, acetylcholine; PP, arterial pulse pressure; CA, arterial compliance; SA, sinoatrial.

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.