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  • The references in the electronic version of this book can be copied and pasted into the Google Scholar search box.

  • If the full text is available, it can be saved in your Google Scholar personal library for future reference.

  • If access to the full text is restricted on Google Scholar, you can ask your medical librarian for help.

  • You can also look for the e-mail address of the corresponding author (usually listed with the free abstract), and ask the author for an electronic copy of the full article.


  • U.S. National Library of Medicine (PubMed).

  • PubMed contains more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Some citations include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher websites.

  • Search example for pressure half time: Libanoff Rodbard 1968

  • Many of the guidelines mentioned in this text can be found and downloaded using PubMed.

  • PubMed Central is a free full-text archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health’s National Library of Medicine.


  • Google Scholar is more forgiving during a “copy and paste” literature search compared with PubMed.

  • You can copy and paste an entire reference from this book into the Google Scholar search box.

  • In PubMed, for best results, you should paste into the search box only title, journal abbreviation, and year from the references in this book.


  • Shultz M. Comparing test searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. J Med Libr Assoc. 2007;95:442–445.


  • Pictures of prosthetic valves: Medtronic Hall; Starr Edwards; St. Jude; Carbomedics; Beall; Bjork Shiley strut fatigue.

  • Noonan syndrome: The unique facial features should prompt a search for pulmonic stenosis on echo.

  • Holt-Oram syndrome: The “fingerized” thumb should prompt a search for an atrial septal defect on echo.


  • Böhm M. Holt-Oram syndrome. Circulation. 1998;98:2636–2637.

  • “Bread and butter pericarditis” pictures illustrate the surface of the heart in pericarditis. Think about these images when you image the anterior pericardial space from the parasternal window.


  • Spodick DH. Medical history of the pericardium. The hairy hearts of hoary heroes. Am J Cardiol. 1970;26:447–454.

Homer’s Odyssey makes reference to “hairy” pericarditis hearts.


  • Embryology of the atrial septum illustrates how a secundum defect is really a defect of the primum septum.

  • Search Paul Wood jugular to see the neck vein physical exam taught by a master clinician. This helps in the understanding of color Doppler caval inflow patterns.

  • Mantis shrimp educational videos ...

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