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Chapter 106: Exercise in Health and Cardiovascular Disease

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Which of the following statements concerning the acute hemodynamics of exercise is false?

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A. The cardiovascular control center is believed to reside in the ventrolateral medulla of the brain and to respond to both central and peripheral inputs

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B. Central impulses arise from somatomotor centers of the brain

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C. Peripheral impulses are generated by mechanoreceptors, found in muscles, joints, and the vascular system; chemoreceptors, found in the muscles and the vascular system; and baroreceptors, found in the vascular system

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D. Central and peripheral impulses are transmitted by autonomic efferent fibers

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E. The central control center regulates cardiac output (CO) and its distribution to organs and tissues according to metabolic demand

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The answer is D. (Hurst’s The Heart, 14th Edition, Chap. 106) During physical activity, energy expenditure increases, and the compensatory cardiovascular response represents an integration of neural, biochemical, and physiologic factors. The cardiovascular control center is believed to reside in the ventrolateral medulla of the brain and to respond to both central and peripheral inputs (option A). Central impulses arise from somatomotor centers of the brain (option B). Peripheral impulses are generated by mechanoreceptors, found in muscles, joints, and the vascular system; chemoreceptors, found in the muscles and the vascular system; and baroreceptors, found in the vascular system (option C). These impulses are transmitted by autonomic afferent fibers (option D). The central control center regulates CO and its distribution to organs and tissues according to metabolic demand.

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A 35-year-old triathlete presents to your clinic for a routine physical examination. Wishing to clarify his understanding of exercise physiology, he asks you to outline the physiological changes and circulatory adjustments that occur during exercise. Which of the following statements about exercise physiology is false?

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A. Cardiac output (CO) is defined as the product of stroke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR)

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B. In women, the average CO at rest is approximately 25% greater than in men

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C. The magnitude of the hemodynamic response during physical activity depends on the intensity and the muscle mass involved

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D. In sedentary individuals, CO during maximal exercise increases approximately four times, to an average of 20 to 22 L/min

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E. In elite-class athletes, the CO can increase eightfold, to values of 35 to 40 L/min

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The answer is B. (Hurst’s The Heart, 14th Edition, Chap. 106) The circulatory response to exercise involves a complex series of adjustments resulting ...

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