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APPENDIX A

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Normal Values of Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Platelets in Adult Human Blood *

Erythrocytes

Male: 4.3–5.7 million/μL blood

Female: 3.9–5.1 million/μL blood

Hemoglobin

Male: 13.5–17.5 g/dL

Female: 12.0–15.5 g/dL

Hematocrit

Male: 38.8%–50%

Female: 34.9%–44.5%

Platelets 150,000–450,000/μL of blood
White blood cells 4000–11,000/μL of blood
Types of leukocytes Percentage of total leukocytes Primary role
Polymorphonuclear granulocytes
 Neutrophils 40–80 Phagocytosis
 Eosinophils 1–6 Allergic hypersensitivity reactions
 Basophils <1–2 Allergic hypersensitivity reactions
Monocytes 1–6 Phagocytosis and antibody production
Lymphocytes 20–40 Antibody production and cell-mediated immunity

* Normal reference ranges vary somewhat with age and race. They may also vary from laboratory to laboratory. To confuse the issue further, various unit measurements are used to report blood data, and so caution must be used in examining data.

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APPENDIX B

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Some Normal Constituents of Adult Human Plasma

Class Constituent Amount/normal concentration range
Electrolytes (inorganic)
 Cations

Sodium (Na+)

Potassium (K+)

Calcium (Ca2+)

Magnesium (Mg2+)

Iron (Fe3+)

Copper (Cu2+)

Hydrogen (H+)

136–145 mEq/L

3.5–5.0 mEq/L

2.1–3.7 mEq/L

1.2–1.8 mEq/L

60–160 μg/dL

70–155 μg/dL

35–45 nmol/L (pH = 7.35–7.45)

 Anions

Chloride (Cl)

Bicarbonate (HCO3 )

Sulfate (SO4 2−)

Phosphate (HPO4 2− mostly)

95–105 mEq/L

23–28 mEq/L

0.9–1.1 mEq/L

2.5–4.5 mg/dL

Proteins

Total (7% of plasma weight)

Albumin

Globulins

Fibrinogen

6–8 g/dL

3.4–5.0 g/dL

2.2–4.0 g/dL

150–400 mg/dL

Lipids

Cholesterol—Total

LDL cholesterol

HDL cholesterol

Triglycerides

<200 mg/dL

<100 mg/dL

>60 mg/dL

<150 mg/dL

Carbohydrates

Glucose

Lactate

80–120 mg/dL

0.67–1.8 mEq/L

Waste products

Uric acid (from nucleic acids)

Blood urea nitrogen (from protein)

Creatinine (from creatine)

Bilirubin (from heme)

2.6–7.0 mg/dL

7–20 mg/dL

0.5–1.1 mg/dL

0.3–1.0 mg/dL

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APPENDIX C

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Key Cardiovascular Variables and Their Normal Determinants1

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p A  = CO  ×  TPR

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CO = SV  ×  HR

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SV = EDV − ESV

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Ejection fraction = SV/EDV

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SV pump ventricular { (+) ↑ cardiac preload (via effect on EDV) (+) ↑ cardiac contractility (via effect on ESV) (−) ↑ cardiac afterload (via effect on ESV)

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Cardiac preload ∝ P CV (“∝” means “is proportional to”)

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P CV   volume central blood { (+)  total blood volume (+)  peripheral venous tone (+) skeletal muscle pump (+) respiratory pump (−) standing (−)  cardiac output

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Venous tone { ( + ) sympatheric activity (via NE, α-receptors)

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Contractility cells ventricular { ( + ) sympatheric activity  ( via NE,  β -receptors )

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Cardiac afterload ∝  p A

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HR firing rat SA node cell { (+)  sympathetic activity (via NE, β-receptors) (−)  parasympathetic activity (via ACh)

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TPR tone arteriolar { (+)  sympathetic activity (via NE, α-receptors) (−)  local metabolites (  local metabolic rate)

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P P  ∝ SV/ C A

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1 P A , mean arterial pressure; CO, cardiac output; TPR, total peripheral resistance; SV, stroke volume; HR, heart rate; ESV, end-systolic volume; EDV, end-diastolic volume; ...

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