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OBJECTIVES

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The student understands the basic principles of cardiovascular transport and its role in maintaining homeostasis:

  • Identifies the factors that determine transport of substances within the vascular system and those that determine diffusion across the capillary wall.

  • Describes how capillary wall permeability to a solute is related to the size and lipid solubility of the solute.

  • Lists the factors that influence transcapillary fluid movement and, given data, predicts the direction of transcapillary fluid movement.

  • Describes the lymphatic vessel system and its role in preventing fluid accumulation in the interstitial space (i.e., edema).

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The student understands the physical factors that regulate blood flow through and blood volume in the various components of the vasculature:

  • Given data, calculates the vascular resistances of networks of vessels arranged in parallel and in series.

  • Describes differences in the blood flow velocity in the various vascular segments and how these differences are related to their total cross-sectional area.

  • Describes laminar and turbulent flow patterns and the origin of flow sounds in the cardiovascular system.

  • Identifies the approximate percentage of the total blood volume that is contained in the various vascular segments in the systemic circulation.

  • Defines peripheral venous pool and central venous pool.

  • Describes the pressure changes that occur as blood flows through a vascular bed and relates them to the vascular resistance of the various vascular segments.

  • States how the resistance of each consecutive vascular segment contributes to an organ’s overall vascular resistance and, given data, calculates the overall resistance.

  • Defines total peripheral resistance (systemic vascular resistance) and states the relationship between it and the vascular resistance of each systemic organ.

  • Defines vascular compliance and states how the volume–pressure curves for arteries and veins differ.

  • Predicts what will happen to venous volume when venous smooth muscle contracts or when venous transmural pressure increases.

  • Describes the role of arterial compliance in storing energy for blood circulation.

  • Describes the auscultation technique for determining arterial systolic and diastolic pressures.

  • Identifies the physical bases of the Korotkoff sounds.

  • Indicates the relationship between arterial pressure, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance and predicts how arterial pressure will be altered when cardiac output and/or total peripheral resistance changes.

  • Given arterial systolic and diastolic pressures, estimates mean arterial pressure.

  • Indicates the relationship between pulse pressure, stroke volume, and arterial compliance and predicts how pulse pressure will be changed by changes in stroke volume, or arterial compliance.

  • Describes how arterial compliance changes with age and how this affects arterial pulse pressure.

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INTRODUCTION

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Recall from Chapter 1 that the primary job of the cardiovascular system is to maintain “homeostasis” within a body that contains billions of closely spaced individual cells. Homeostasis implies that each and every cell in the body is continually bathed in a local environment of constant composition that is optimal for cell function. In essence, the peripheral vascular system is a sophisticated irrigation system. Blood flow is continually delivering nutrients to and removing waste ...

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