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Chapter 11. Operational Radiation Management for Patients and Staff

For a fluoroscopy procedure, cumulative air kerma at a reference point is best described as:

A. The total absorbed dose to the patient

B. The amount of radiation accumulated at a specified point

C. The total effective dose to the patient accumulated over time

D. The total probability of inducing a cancer in a patient

The correct answer is B

For doses delivered from high-dose fluoroscopically guided interventions in nonpregnant patients, stochastic effects differ from radiation-induced tissue reactions (deterministic effects) in that tissue reactions:

A. Increase in severity as dose increases past the threshold

B. Can occur in tissues remote from the irradiated site

C. Become evident while the radiation is applied

D. Are independent of the patient’s specific health status

The correct answer is A

Why are medical staff required to wear a personal radiation monitor during fluoroscopic procedures?

A. To assure government regulators that the machine is operating safely

B. To assure government regulators that safe practices are being exercised

C. To protect the staff by absorbing ambient radiation in the environment

D. To assess their exposure over time to see if increased protection is warranted

The correct answer is D

Which of the following actions is most likely to result in an increase in entrance absorbed dose rate to the skin of the patient?

A. Decrease magnification (use larger field of view)

B. Decrease distance of image receptor from the patient

C. Employ high-level fluoroscopy

D. Use a lower pulse rate for fluoroscopy

The correct answer is C

Which beam orientation is most likely to result in the highest entrance absorbed dose rate to the skin of the patient?

A. 10° left anterior oblique (LAO), 0° cranial

B. 20° LAO, 0° cranial

C. 10° LAO, 15° cranial


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