Chapter 3. Cardiac Anatomy for the Interventionalist
During a mitral valve clip procedure, which of the following would be true when orienting the device?
A. When crossing the septum, the device catheter should be pointed posteriorly to best cross the mitral valve.
B. To clip medial or lateral parts of the valve, the clip may need to be rotated to be perpendicular to the coaptation plane.
C. The location of the transseptal puncture is less important than the direction of the catheter.
D. A patent foramen ovale can be used to cross the septum and deliver the device, avoiding the need for a transseptal puncture.
Which of the following is least likely to increase the risk of pacemaker implants during a transcatheter aortic valve replacement?
A. A low implant position in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT).
B. Dense LVOT calcification.
C. A preexisting right bundle branch block.
D. Transapical approach to the implant.
E. Use of a self-expanding prosthesis instead of a balloon-expanding prosthesis.
When closing an atrial septal defect, which rim, when missing, is most likely to increase the risk of device embolization and why?
A. Retroaortic rim due to motion of the aorta.
B. Retroaortic rim due to tension on the device by the delivery cable.
C. Posterior rim due to limited atrial space.
D. Inferior vena cava rim due to tension on the device by the delivery cable.
E. Inferior vena cava rim due to proximity to the tricuspid valve.
In which of the following interventions is there no risk of coronary artery injury or occlusion?
A. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).
B. Coronary sinus annuloplasty.
C. Device closure of an atrial septal defect.
D. Transcatheter valve implantation in the pulmonic position.