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The student understands the general mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular responses to any given normal homeostatic disturbance in the intact cardiovascular system and can predict the resulting alterations in all important cardiovascular variables:

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  • Identifies the primary disturbances that the situation places on the cardiovascular system.
  • Lists how the primary disturbances change the influence on the medullary cardiovascular centers from (1) arterial baroreceptors and (2) other sources.
  • States what immediate reflex compensatory changes will occur in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activities as a result of the altered influences on the medullary cardiovascular centers.
  • Indicates what immediate reflex compensatory changes will occur in basic cardiovascular variables such as the heart rate, cardiac contractility, stroke volume, arteriolar tone, venous tone, peripheral venous pressure, central venous pressure, total peripheral resistance, resistance in any major organ, and blood flow through any major organ.
  • Predicts what the net effect of the primary disturbance and reflex compensatory influences on the cardiovascular variables listed in the preceding objective will be on mean arterial pressure.
  • States whether mean arterial pressure and sympathetic nerve activity will settle above or below their normal values.
  • Predicts whether and states how cutaneous blood flow will be altered by temperature regulation reflexes.
  • Indicates whether and how transcapillary fluid movements will be involved in the overall cardiovascular response to a given primary disturbance.
  • Indicates whether, why, how, and with what time course renal adjustments of fluid balance will participate in the response.
  • Predicts how each of the basic cardiovascular variables will be influenced by long-term adjustments in blood volume.

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The student understands how respiratory activities influence the cardiovascular system:

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  • Describes how the “respiratory pump” promotes venous return.
  • Identifies the primary disturbances on cardiovascular variables associated with normal respiratory activity.
  • Describes the reflex compensatory responses to respiratory activity.
  • Defines the causes of “normal sinus arrhythmia.”
  • Lists the cardiovascular consequences of the Valsalva maneuver and of positive-pressure artificial ventilation.

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The student understands the specific processes associated with the homeostatic adjustments to the effects of gravity:

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  • States how gravity influences arterial, venous, and capillary pressures at any height above or below the heart in a standing individual.
  • Describes and explains the changes in central venous pressure and the changes in transcapillary fluid balance and venous volume in the lower extremities caused by standing upright.
  • Describes the operation of the “skeletal muscle pump” and explains how it simultaneously promotes venous return and decreases capillary hydrostatic pressure in the muscle vascular beds.
  • Identifies the primary disturbances and compensatory responses evoked by acute changes in body position.
  • Describes the chronic effects of long-term bed rest on cardiovascular variables.

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The student understands the specific processes associated with the homeostatic adjustments to exercise:

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  • Identifies the primary disturbances and compensatory responses evoked by acute episodes of dynamic exercise.
  • Describes the conflict between pressure reflexes and temperature reflexes on cutaneous blood flow.
  • Indicates how the “skeletal muscle pump” and the “respiratory ...

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