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βARK1 βAR kinase 1
1D one-dimensional
2D two-dimensional
3D three-dimensional
4D four-dimensional
5-HT 5-hydroxytryptamine
99mTc technetium-99m
AAA abdominal aortic aneurysm
AAC American College of Cardiology
AACE American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
AAD antiarrhythmic drug
AAR area at risk
AAV antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody- associated vasculitides
AAV1 adeno-associated virus 1
ABI ankle-brachial index
ABL ablation catheter
ABR arterial-bronchial diameter ratio
ACA anterior cerebral artery
ACAT acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterolacyltransferase
ACC American College of Cardiology
ACCF American College of Cardiology Foundation
ACE angiotensin- converting enzyme
ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor
ACHA Adult Congenital Heart Association
ACHD adult congenital heart disease
ACM arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy
A-CMP alcoholic cardiomyopathy
ACS acute coronary syndrome
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
ACUITY Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy
AD autosomal dominant
ADA American Diabetes Association
ADCM atrial dilated cardiomyopathy
ADH antidiuretic hormone
ADHERE Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry
ADM adrenomedullin
ADP adenosine diphosphate
AEC absolute eosinophilic count
AED automated external defibrillator
AF atrial fibrillation
AFD Anderson Fabry disease
Afib atrial fibrillation
AFL atrial flutter
AHA American Heart Association
A-HeFT African American Heart Failure Trial
AHF acute heart failure
AHI apnea-hypopnea index
AI aortic insufficiency
A-IAB advanced interatrial block
AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AIVR accelerated idioventricular rhythm
AKI acute renal injury
AL allostatic load; light chain (amyloidosis)
ALL acute lymphoblastic leukemia
AMA American Medical Association
AMC aorto-mitral continuity
AME apparent mineralocorticoid excess
AMI acute myocardial infarction
AMP adenosine monophosphate
ANA antinuclear antibodies
ANCA antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
Ang II angiotensin II
ANP atrial natriuretic peptide
Ao aorta
AoP aortic pressure
AoV aortic valve
AP anteroposterior
APAH associated pulmonary arterial hypertension
APC angiogenic progenitor cell
APD action potential duration
APHRS Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Association
apo apolipoprotein
apo(a) apolipoprotein(a)
apoE apolipoprotein E
APS antiphospholipid syndrome
aPTT activated partial thromboplastin time
APVR anomalous pulmonary venous return
AR adrenergic receptor; aortic regurgitation; autosomal recessive
ARB angiotensin receptor blocker
ARC arrhythmogenic right, left, and biventricular cardiomyopathy
ARF acute rheumatic fever
ARH autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia
ARIC Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities
ARNI angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibition
ARVC arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
AS aortic stenosis
ASA alcohol septal ablation; aspirin
ASCVD atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
ASD atrial septal defect
ASE American Society of Echocardiography
ASNC American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
ASO arteriosclerosis obliterans
ASV adaptive servo-ventilation
AT III antithrombin 3
AT antithrombin; atrial tachycardia
ATP adenosine triphosphate; antitachycardia pacing
ATPase adenosine triphosphatase
ATS arterial tortuosity syndrome
ATTR transthyretin (amyloidosis)
AU arbitrary units
AUC appropriate use criteria
AV aortic valve; arteriovenous; atrioventricular
AVA aortic valve area
AVB atrioventricular block
AVID Antiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibrillators (registry)
AVM arteriovenous malformation
AVNRT atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia
A-VO2 arteriovenous oxygen difference
AVP arginine vasopressin
AVR aortic valve replacement
AVRT atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia
B19V human parvovirus B19
BARC Bleeding Academic Research Consortium
BAT baroreflex activation therapy
BAV bicuspid aortic valve
BB β-blocker
BBR bundle-branch reentry
BH4 tetrahydroxybiopterin
BiPAP bilevel positive airway pressure
BM bone marrow
BMI body mass index
BMMNC bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell
BMP bone morphogenetic protein
BMS bare metal stent
BMV balloon mitral valvotomy
BNP B-type natriuretic peptide; brain natriuretic peptide
BOLD Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study
BP blood pressure
BPD biliopancreatic diversion with or without duodenal switch
BREATHE-5 Bosentan Randomized Trial of Endothelin Antagonist Therapy-5
BRS baroreflex sensitivity; bioresorbable scaffolds
BrS Brugada syndrome
BSA body surface area
BTT bridge to transplantation
BV biventricular
BVS bioresorbable vascular scaffold
Ca calcium
CA cancer antigen
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
CAC coronary artery calcium/calcification
CACS coronary artery calcium score
CAD coronary artery disease
CAH congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Cai intracellular calcium
CAID chronic atrial and intestinal dysrhythmia
CaMKII calcium-calmodulin kinase II
cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate
CAR coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor
Carl cardiac apoptosis-related lncRNA
CAS coronary artery stenting
cath lab catheterization laboratory
CAV cardiac allograft vasculopathy
CCA common carotid artery
CCB calcium channel blocker
CCS Canadian Cardiovascular Society; computed tomography-derived coronary artery calcium/calcification score
CCTA cardiac/coronary computed tomography angiography
CD Chagas disease
CDC cardiosphere-derived cell
CDLS Cornelia de Lange syndrome
CDRIE cardiac device–related infective endocarditis
CDT catheter-directed thrombolysis
CEA carcinoembryonic antigen; carotid endarterectomy
CE-CMR contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance
CE-MRA contrast- enhanced magnetic resonance angiography
CETP cholesteryl ester transfer protein
CFD color-flow Doppler; computational fluid dynamics
CFR coronary flow reserve
CGM continuous glucose monitoring
cGMP cyclic 3′,5′-guanosine monophosphate
CHA2DS2-VASc congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, sex category
CHADS2 congestive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke
CHARM Candesartan in Heart Failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity
Chast cardiac hypertrophy-associated transcript
CHD congenital heart disease; coronary heart disease
CHP capillary hydrostatic pressure
CI chronotropic incompetence; confidence interval
CICR calcium-induced calcium release
CIED cardiac/cardiovascular implantable electronic device
CIN contrast-induced nephropathy
CIPO chronic intestinal pseudo- obstruction
CK creatine kinase
CKD chronic kidney disease
CK-MB creatine kinase myocardial band
CLI critical limb ischemia
CLS closed loop stimulation
CM cardiomyopathy
CMAP compound motor action potential
CMD coronary microvascular disease/dysfunction
CMDS cardiometabolic disease staging system
CML chronic myeloid leukemia
CMP cardiomyopathy
CMR cardiac/ cardiovascular magnetic resonance
cMRI cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
CMS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
cMs centimorgans
CMV closed mitral valvotomy
CNI calcineurin inhibitor
CNP C-type natriuretic peptide
CNS central nervous system
CO carbon monoxide; cardiac output
CO2 carbon dioxide
CONCOR CONgenital CORvitia
CoNS coagulase- negative staphylococci
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COPE Colchicine for Acute Pericarditis
COX cyclooxygenase
CP constrictive pericarditis
CPAP continuous positive airway pressure
CPB cardiopulmonary bypass
CPET cardiopulmonary exercise testing
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPTP cyclopentyltriazolopyrimidine
CPVT catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
CR cardiac rehabilitation
Cr creatinine
CRCD chemotherapy-related cardiac dysfunction
CREDO Clopidogrel for the Reduction of Events during Observation; Coalition to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes
CRIS Cardiac Risk Index Score
CRP C-reactive protein
CRT cardiac resynchronization therapy
CS carcinoid syndrome; coronary sinus
CS2 carbon disulfide
CSA central sleep apnea; cross-sectional area
CsA cyclosporine A
CSNRT corrected sinus node recovery time
CSR Cheyne-Stokes respiration
CSS Churg-Strauss syndrome
CT FFR computed tomography fractional flow reserve
CT computed tomography
CTA computed tomography angiography
CTCAE Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events
CTEPH chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension
CTLA4 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4
cTn cardiac troponin
cTnI cardiac troponin I
cTnT cardiac troponin T
CTP computed tomography perfusion
CTPA computed tomography pulmonary angiography
CTRCD chemotherapy-related cardiac dysfunction
CURE Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Ischemic Events
CURRENT Clopidogrel Optimal Loading Dose Usage to Reduce Recurrent Events- Organization to Assess Strategies in Ischemic Syndromes
CV cardiovascular
CV-B3 coxsackievirus B3
CVD cardiovascular disease
CVR coronary vasodilatory reserve
CW continuous-wave
Cx circumflex
CYFRA 21-1 cytokeratin 19 fragment
CYP cytochrome P450
CZT cadmium-zinc-telluride (detector)
D2B Door-to-Balloon Initiative
DAD delayed afterpolarization
DAG diacylglycerol
DALY disability-adjusted life-year
DAPT dual antiplatelet therapy
DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
DBP diastolic blood pressure
DBT door-to-balloon time
DC direct current
DCA directional coronary atherectomy
DCD donation after circulatory death
DCM dilated cardiomyopathy
DCM-DYS dilated cardiodystrophinopathy
DCM-EMD dilated cardioemerinopathy
DCM-LMNA dilated cardio- laminopathy
DENSE displacement encoded echoes
DES drug-eluting stent
DHHS Department of Health and Human Services
DHP CCB dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker
DIL drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus
DM dermatomyositis; myotonic dystrophy
DM-CMP diabetes mellitus-related cardiomyopathy
DMD Duchenne muscular dystrophy
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DOAC direct-acting oral anticoagulant
DOCA deoxycorticosterone acetate
DORV double-outlet right ventricle
DPP-IV dipeptidyl peptidase IV
DR Dahl salt-resistant
DS Dahl salt-sensitive; diameter stenosis
DSA digital subtraction angiography
DSCR Down syndrome critical region
DSE dobutamine stress echocardiography
DT destination therapy
DTI direct thrombin inhibitor
DTS Duke treadmill score
DVT deep vein thrombosis
DWORF dwarf open reading frame
EA effective arterial elastance
EAD early after depolarization
EARLY ACS Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome
EBCT electron beam computed tomography
EBV Ebstein-Barr virus
EC excitation- contraction
ECG electrocardiogram; electrocardiography
ECGI electrocardiographic imaging
ECM extracellular matrix
ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
ECV effective circulatory volume; extracellular volume
ED emergency department; endothelial dysfunction
EDC endocrine- disrupting compound
EDCF endothelium-derived constricting factor
EDHF endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor
EDP end-diastolic pressure
EDPVR end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship
EDRF endothelium-derived relaxing factor
EDS IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
EDV end-diastolic volume
EEM external elastic membrane
Ees end-systolic elastance
EET epoxyeicosatrienoic (acid)
EF ejection fraction
EFFECT Enhanced Feedback for Effective Cardiac Treatment
EFNB2 ephrin-B2
EGE early gadolinium enhancement
eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
EGPA eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis
EHRA European Heart Rhythm Association
ELI energy loss index
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EMB endomyocardial biopsy
EMF endomyocardial fibrosis
EMI electromagnetic interference
EMS emergency medical services
EMT epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
ENaC epithelial sodium channel
EndMT endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition
eNOS endothelial nitric oxide synthase type III
EOA effective orifice area
EP electrophysiology
EPC endothelial progenitor cell
EPD embolic protection device
EPDC epicardial- derived cells
EPS electrophysiologic study
ER endoplasmic reticulum
ERA endothelin receptor agonist
ERK extracellular signal-regulated kinase
EROA effective regurgitant orifice area
ERP effective refractory period
ERS early repolarization syndrome
ESC embryonic stem cell; European Society of Cardiology
ESCAPE Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization and Effectiveness
ESPVR end-systolic pressure-volume relationship
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESRD end-stage renal disease
ESS endothelial shear stress
ESSENCE Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Non–Q-Wave Coronary Events
ESV end-systolic volume
ET endothelin
ET-1 endothelin-1
ETA endothelin receptor type A
ETB endothelin receptor type B
ETT exercise treadmill test
EVEREST Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study With Tolvaptan
FA femoral artery; fibroatheroma
FAC fractional area change
FAP familial amyloid polyneuropathy
FCTC Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
FD fractal dimension
FDA US Food and Drug Administration
FDCM familial dilated cardiomyopathy
FDG fluorodeoxyglucose
FFR fractional flow reserve
FFRCT fractional flow reserve computed tomography
FGF fibroblast growth factor
FH familial hypercholesterolemia
FHF first heart field
FH-I familial hyperaldosteronism type I
FH-II familial hyperaldosteronism type II
FMD fibromuscular dysplasia
FMF familial Mediterranean fever
FRDA Friedrich ataxia
FRS Framingham Risk Score
FSE fast spin echo
FTAAD familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection
FXa factor Xa
GAS group A Streptococcus
GBCA gadolinium-based contrast agent
GBD Global Burden of Disease
GCA giant-cell arteritis
GCM giant cell myocarditis
GCV great cardiac vein
GDF-15 growth differentiation factor-15
GDP gross domestic product
GEP gene expression profile
GFR glomerular filtration rate
GH growth hormone
GI gastrointestinal
GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1
GLS global longitudinal strain
GP glycoprotein
GPI glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor
GRACE Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events
GRK G protein-coupled receptor kinase
GSK-3 glycogen synthase kinase-3
GSV great saphenous vein
GUSTO Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries
GWAS genome-wide association studies
GWTG Get with the Guidelines
GWTG-HF Get with the Guidelines-Heart Failure
HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy
HACEK Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species
HAID heritable autoinflammatory disorder
HANA HIV-associated non-AIDS illnesses
HBP His bundle pacing
HCII heparin cofactor II
HCM hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
HCMV human cytomegalovirus
HCN hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel
HD hemodialysis
HDAC histone deacetylase
HDE high-dose epinephrine
HDL high-density lipoprotein
HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
HES hypereosinophilic syndromes
HETE hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
HF heart failure
HFpEF heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
HFQRS high-frequency mid-QRS
HFrEF heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
HH hereditary hemochromatosis
HHV human herpesviruses
HIF hypoxia-inducible factor
H-ISDN hydralazine plus isosorbide dinitrate
HIT heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
HITS high-intensity transient signals
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
HLA human leukocyte antigen
HMG-CoA hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A
hNET1 human norepinephrine transporter 1
HOCM hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
HPAH heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension
HR hazard ratio; heart rate
HRmax maximum heart rate
HRS Heart Rhythm Society
HS hemorrhagic stroke
hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein
hsTn highly sensitive troponin
I-1 (protein phosphatase) inhibitor-1
IAB intra-aortic balloon
IABP intra-aortic balloon pump
IC intracoronary
I Ca calcium current
ICA internal carotid artery; invasive coronary angiography
I Ca,L L-type calcium current
ICAM intercellular adhesion molecule
ICD implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; International Classification of Diseases
ICE International Collaboration on Endocarditis; intracardiac echocardiography
ICM ischemic cardiomyopathy
IDF International Diabetes Foundation
IDTCFA intravascular ultrasound– derived thin cap fibroatheroma
IDU injection drug user
IE infective endocarditis
IEM internal elastic membrane
I f hyperpolarization- activated pacemaker current
IFN interferon
IFN-β interferon-β
iFR instantaneous wave-free ratio
Ig immunoglobulin
IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor-1
IHA idiopathic hyperaldosteronism
IHCA in-hospital cardiac arrest
IHD ischemic heart disease
IHR intrinsic heart rate
I K potassium channel
I KAS apamin-sensitive SK current
I Kr rapid outward potassium current
I Ks slow outward potassium current
IL interleukin
ILD interstitial lung disease
IMR index of microcirculatory resistance; ischemic mitral regurgitation
I Na sodium channel current
I NaL late sodium current
I NCX sodium-calcium exchange current
iNOS inducible nitric oxide synthase; nitric oxide synthase type II
INR international normalized ratio
InsP3 inositol 1,4,5- triphosphate
INTERMACS Interagency Registry of Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support
IOM Institute of Medicine
IP3 inositol triphosphate
IPAC Investigations of Pregnancy- Associated Cardiomyopathy
IPAH idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension
IPC ischemic preconditioning
IPF idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
IPH inferoposterior hemiblock
IPost ischemic postconditioning
iPSC induced pluripotent stem cell
iPSC-CM induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte
IQR interquartile range
IRI ischemia/reperfusion injury
IRIS immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
IS ischemic stroke
ISAR-REACT Intracoronary Stenting and Antithrombotic Regimen: Rapid Early Action for Coronary Treatment
ISFC International Society and Federation of Cardiology
ISHLT International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation
IST inappropriate sinus tachycardia
I to transient outward current
IUGR intrauterine growth restriction
IV intravenous
IVC inferior vena cava
IVDC intraventricular conduction defect
IVIG intravenous immunoglobulin
IVPA intravascular photoacoustic (imaging)
IVUS intravascular ultrasound
IVUS-VH intravascular ultrasound virtual histology
JMH Japanese Ministry of Health
JNC Joint National Committee
JNK c-Jun N-terminal kinase
Km Michaelis constant
KO knockout
KS Kaposi sarcoma
LA left atrial/atrium
LAA left artery/atrial appendage
LAD left anterior descending coronary artery
LAE left atrial enlargement
LAO left anterior oblique
LAP low attenuation plaque
LBBB left bundle-branch block
LCAT lecithin- cholesterol acyl transferase
LCC left coronary cusp
LCP lipid core plaque
LCSD left cardiac sympathetic denervation
LCX left circumflex artery
LDF laser Doppler fluximetry
LDL low-density lipoprotein
LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
LDLR low-density lipoprotein receptor
LDS Loeys-Dietz syndrome
LGB laparoscopic gastric banding
LGE late gadolinium-enhanced (imaging)
LIMA left internal mammary artery
LM left main
LMICs low- and middle-income countries
LMWH low-molecular-weight heparin
lncRNA long ncRNA
LOE level of evidence
LOX lysyl-oxidase
Lp(a) lipoprotein(a)
LPL lipoprotein lipase
LQTS long QT syndrome
LRI lower-rate interval
LSS laminar shear stress
LUCAS Lund University Cardiac Arrest System
LV left ventricle/ventricular
LVAD left ventricular assist device
LVE left ventricular enlargement
LVEDP left ventricular end-diastolic pressure
LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction
LVH left ventricular hypertrophy
LVNC left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy
LVOT left ventricular outflow tract
LVOTO left ventricular outflow tract obstruction
MA mitral annulus; mycotic aneurysm
MAC mitral annual/annulus calcification
MACCE major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events
MACE major adverse cardiac event
MAF minor allele frequency
MAGE Mean Amplitude Glucose Excursions
MAGGIC Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure
MAP mean arterial pressure
MAPK mitogen-activated protein kinase
Mbp million base pairs
MC4R melanocortin 4 receptors
MCA middle cerebral artery
MCP-1 monocyte chemotactic protein-1
MCS mechanical circulatory support
MDCT multidetector computed tomography
MEN multiple endocrine neoplasia
MESA Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
MET metabolic equivalent
MetS metabolic syndrome
MFS Marfan syndrome
MHC myosin heavy chain
MI myocardial infarction
MIM Mendelian Inheritance in Man
MIRACL Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering
miRNA microRNA
MLA minimum luminal (cross-sectional) area
MLC myosin light chain
MLC2 myosin light chain 2
mLCK myosin light-chain kinase
MLD minimal lumen diameter
MMP metalloproteinase
MMP-9 matrix metallopeptidase 9
MOGE(S) morphofunctional phenotype, organ(s) involvement, genetic inheritance pattern, etiologic annotation including genetic defect or underlying disease/substrate, and functional status of the disease
MONICA Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease
MP microparticle
MPA microscopic polyangiitis
mPAP mean pulmonary artery pressure
MPHR maximum predicted heart rate
MPI myocardial perfusion imaging
MPO myeloperoxidase
MPR myocardial perfusion reserve
MPTP mitochondrial permeability transition pore
MR mineralocorticoid receptor; mitral regurgitation
MRA magnetic resonance angiography; mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MRMPI magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging
mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid
MRproADM midregional pro- adrenomedullin
MRSA methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MRV magnetic resonance venography
MS mitral stenosis
MSA multiple system atrophy
MSC mesenchymal stem cell
MSH melanocyte stimulating hormone
mtDNA mitochondrial DNA
mTOR mammalian target of rapamycin
MTP microsomal triglyceride transfer protein
MTRI maximal tracking rate interval
MUGA multi-gated acquisition
MV mitral valve
MVA mitral valve area
MVB mixed venous blood
MVC maximal voluntary contraction
MVO microvascular obstruction
MVO2 maximal venous oxygen; myocardial oxygen demand
MVP mitral valve prolapse
MVR mitral valve replacement
MyBP-C myosin-binding protein C
Na+-K+ ATPase sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase
NADPH nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NBT nitroblue tetrazolium
NBTE nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
NC noncompacted
NC/C noncompacted-to-compacted ratio
NCD noncommunicable disease
NCDR National Cardiovascular Data Registries
NCEP National Cholesterol Education Program
ncRNA non-protein-coding RNA
ncWnt noncanonical Wnt
NCX Na+-Ca2+ exchanger
NE norepinephrine
NEFA nonesterified fatty acid
NET neuroendocrine tumor
NF normal flow
NFAT nuclear factor of activated T cells
NGF nerve growth factor
NGS next-generation sequencing
NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey/Study
NHIS National Health Interview Survey
NHLBI National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
NICM nonischemic cardiomyopathy
NIMHD National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities
NIPT noninvasive prenatal testing
NIRF near-infrared fluorescence
NIRS near-infrared spectroscopy
NIS Nationwide Inpatient Sample
NLRP3 Nod-like receptor P3
nNOS neuronal nitric oxide synthase; nitric oxide synthase type I
NNRTI non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NO nitric oxide
NOAC new orally active anticoagulant; non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant; novel oral anticoagulant
NOS nitric oxide synthase; nitrous oxide synthase
NOS1 nitrous oxide synthase type I
NOS3 nitrous oxide synthase type III
nPA lanoteplase
NPH neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)
NPPA natriuretic peptide precursor A
NPV negative predictive value
NPY neuropeptide Y
NRMI National Registry of Myocardial Infarction
NRT nicotine replacement therapy
NRTI nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NSF nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome
NSTEMI non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
NSVT nonsustained ventricular tachycardia
NTG nitroglycerin
NT-proBNP N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide
NURD nonuniform rotation distortion
NVE native valve endocarditis
NYHA New York Heart Association
OASIS Organization for the Assessment of Strategies for Ischemic Syndromes
OCT optical coherence tomography
OFDI optical frequency domain imaging
OFT outflow tract
OHCA out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
OM obtuse marginal
OMIM Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man
OMT optimal medical therapy
OMV open mitral valvotomy
OPCAB off-pump coronary artery bypass
OPO organ procurement organization
OPTIMIZE-HF Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure
OR odds ratio
OSA obstructive sleep apnea
PA pulmonary artery
PAC premature atrial contraction; pulmonary arterial catheter
PaCO2 partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide
PAD peripheral arterial/artery disease; public-access defibrillation
PAF pure autonomic failure
PAH pulmonary artery hypertension
PAHO Pan-American Health Organization
PAI-1 plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1
PAIN priority risk, advanced risk, intermediate risk, and negative/low risk
PAN polyarteritis nodosa
PaO2 arterial oxygen partial pressure
PAP positive airway pressure
PAPS pyrin-associated periodic fevers/syndrome
PAR protease-activated receptor
PASP pulmonary artery systolic pressure
PAV percent atheroma volume
PBDE polybrominated diphenyl ether
PBF pulmonary blood flow
PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cell
PC phase contrast
PCA posterior cerebral artery
PCB polychlorinated biphenyl
PCCD progressive cardiac conduction disease
PCD phlegmasia cerulea dolens; primary ciliary dyskinesia
PCI percutaneous coronary intervention
PCNA Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association
PCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide
PCORI Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute
PCr phosphocreatine
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PCSK9 proprotein convertase subtilisin/ kinexin 9
PCTA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PCW pulmonary capillary wedge (pressure)
PCWP pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
PDA patent ductus arteriosus
PDE phosphodiesterase
PDE-5 phosphodiesterase- 5
PDGF platelet-derived growth factor
PDK1 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1
PE pulmonary embolism
PECAM platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule
PES programmed electrical stimulation
PESI Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index
PESP postextrasystolic potentiation
PET positron emission tomography
PET-CT positron emission tomography-computed tomography
PFAA perfluoroalkyl acid
PFO patent foramen ovale
PFOA perfluorooctanoic acid
PFOS perfluorooctanyl sulfonate
PGC-1β proliferator- activated receptor coactivator 1β
PGH2 prostaglandin H2
PGI2 prostaglandin I2
PH pulmonary hypertension
PHV prosthetic heart valve
PHVT prosthetic heart valve thrombosis
P-IAB partial interatrial block
PIIINP N-terminal type III collagen peptide
PIOPED Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis
PISA proximal isovelocity surface area
PKA protein kinase A
PKB protein kinase B
PKC protein kinase C
PKC-α protein kinase C-α
PLATO Study of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes
PlGF placenta growth factor
PM particulate matter; positive remodeling
PMT pacemaker- mediated tachycardia
PMVT polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
PO2 partial pressure of oxygen
POMC proopiomelanocortin
POTS postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
PP protein phosphatase; pulse pressure
PPACA Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
PPAR peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor
pPCI primary percutaneous coronary intervention
PPCM peripartum cardiomyopathy
PPH primary pulmonary hypertension
PPI postpacing interval
PPMI postprocedural myocardial infarction
PPV positive predictive value
PR pulmonic regurgitation
PRF pulse repetition frequency
PROSPECT Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree
PROVE IT Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy
PRP pressure rate product
PS primitive streak; pulmonic stenosis
PSC pluripotent stem cell
PSG polysomnography
PSI proliferation signal inhibitor
PSVT paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
PTLD post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder
PTP permeability transition pore
PTS postthrombotic syndrome
PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder
PURE Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (study)
P-V pressure-volume
PV pulmonic/pulmonary valve
PVA pressure-volume area
PVAD paracorporeal ventricular assist device
PVARP postventricular atrial refractory period
PVC premature ventricular complex; premature ventricular contraction
PVI pulmonary vein isolation
PVOD pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
PVR pulmonary vascular resistance
PWD pulsed-wave Doppler
PXE pseudoxanthoma elasticum
Q (cardiac) output
QA quality assessment
QALY quality-adjusted life-year
QCA quantitative coronary angiography
QI quality improvement
R (cardiac) resistance
RA rheumatoid arthritis; right atrial/atrium
RAAS renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system
RAE right atrial enlargement
RAO right anterior oblique
RBBB right bundle-branch block
RBC red blood cell
RCA right coronary artery
RCC right coronary cusp
RCM restrictive cardiomyopathy
RCT randomized controlled trial
RDN renal denervation
REPLACE Randomized Evaluation in PCI Linking Angiomax to Reduced Clinical Events
RF radiofrequency; rheumatic fever; rheumatoid factor
RHD rheumatic heart disease
RIC remote ischemic conditioning
RIFLE risk, injury, and heart failure, loss, and end-stage renal disease
RIHP renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure
RISK reperfusion injury salvage kinase
RNA radionuclide angiography; ribonucleic acid
rNAPc2 recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2
ROI region of interest
ROS reactive oxygen species
ROSC return of spontaneous circulation
rPA reteplase
RPF renal plasma flow
RR relative risk; risk ratio
RT3D real-time three-dimensional
rtPA recombinant tissue plasminogen activator
RV right ventricle/ventricular
RVE right ventricular enlargement
RVEDV right ventricular end-diastolic volume
RVNC right ventricular noncompaction
RVOT right ventricular outflow tract
RyGB Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
RYR2 ryanodine type 2 receptor
SA sideroblastic anemias; sinoatrial
SACT sinoatrial conduction time
SAECG signal-averaged electrocardiogram
SAFE survivor activator factor enhancement
SAH subarachnoid hemorrhage; superoanterior hemiblock
SAM systolic anterior motion
SAN sinoatrial node
SAP serum amyloid P component; stable angina pectoris
SAS subaortic stenosis
SAVR surgical aortic valve replacement
SBP systolic blood pressure
SC spotty calcifications; subcutaneous
Sca-1 stem cell antigen-1
SCAD small capillary and arteriolar dilatation; spontaneous dissection of the coronary artery
SCD sudden cardiac death
SD standard deviation
SDB sleep-disordered breathing
SDE single-dose epinephrine
SDS summed differences score
SERCA sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase
SERCA2 sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase2
SES sirolimus-eluting stent; socioeconomic status
SFA subcutaneous fat aspiration
SG sleeve gastrectomy
SGNA stellate ganglion nerve activity
SHF second heart field
S-ICD subcutaneous ICD
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
SIHD stable ischemic heart disease
SK small conductance calcium-activated potassium current; streptokinase
SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
SND sinus node dysfunction
SNP single nucleotide polymorphism
SNRT sinus node recovery time
SNS sympathetic nervous system
SNV single nucleotide variant
SOICR store overload-induced calcium release
SP secondary prevention
SPECT single-photon emission tomography
sPESI Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index
SPRINT Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial
SQTS short QT syndrome
SR sarcoplasmic reticulum
SRS summed rest score
SSFP steady-state free precession
SSS sick sinus syndrome; summed stress score
sST2 soluble ST2
SSV small saphenous vein
START Screening Tool to Alert Doctors to the Right Treatment
STE-ACS ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome
STEMI ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
STIR short tau inversion recovery
STOPP Screening Tool of Older People’s Potentially Inappropriate Prescriptions
STP superficial thrombophlebitis
STS Society of Thoracic Surgeons
SUDS sudden unexpected death syndrome
SUMO-1 small ubiquitin-like modifier 1
SUR sulfonylurea receptor
SUV standard uptake value
SV stroke volume
SVAS supravalvar aortic stenosis
SVC superior vena cava
SVR systemic vascular resistance
SVT supraventricular tachycardia
SYNERGY Superior Yield of the New Strategy of Enoxaparin, Revascularization, and Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors
SYNTAX Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery
T2D type 2 diabetes
TA Takayasu arteritis; tricuspid valve
TAA thoracic aortic aneurysm
TAAD thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection
TAH total artificial heart
TAP transmembrane action potential
TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion
TARP total atrial refractory period
TAV total atheroma volume
TAVR transcatheter aortic valve replacement
TBR target-to- background ratio
TCAR transcarotid artery revascularization
TCCD 2,3,7,8-tetracloro-p- dibenzodioxin
Tcf/Lef T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor
TCFA thin cap fibroatheroma
TCPO2 transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement
TCPV transcatheter pulmonary valve
TD time-domain
TDI tissue Doppler imaging
TD-OCT time-domain optical coherence tomography
TDP torsades de pointes
TEE transesophageal echocardiography
TENS transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation
TF tissue factor; transcription factor
TGA transposition of the great arteries
TGF transforming growth factor
TGF-β transforming growth factor beta
TGRL triglyceride-rich lipoprotein
TH therapeutic hypothermia
TIA transient ischemic attack
TID transient ischemic dilation
TIMACS Timing of Intervention in Acute Coronary Syndrome
TIMI thrombolysis in myocardial infarction
TIMP tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase
TIMP-1 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1
TIPS transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
TKI tyrosine-kinase inhibitor
TLE transvenous lead extraction
TLR toll-like receptor
TMCR transcatheter mitral valve replacement
TnC troponin C
TNF tumor necrosis factor
TNF-I tumor necrosis factor inhibitor
TnI troponin I
TNK tenecteplase
TNM tumor-node-metastasis
TnT troponin T
ToF tetralogy of Fallot
TOF time of flight
TOK triangle of Koch
TOPCAT Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist
TOS The Obesity Society
TP thromboxane
tPA tissue plasminogen activator
TPD total perfusion deficit
TPR total peripheral (vascular) resistance
TR tricuspid regurgitation
TRFS time-resolved spectroscopy
TRITON Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel
TRO triple rule-out
TS tricuspid stenosis
TTC triphenyl tetrazolium chloride
TTE transthoracic echocardiography
TTM Therapeutic Temperature Management
TTR transthyretin
TTS Takotsubo syndrome
TUNEL terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling
TV tricuspid valve; transplant vasculopathy
TVR transcatheter heart valve
TWA T-wave alternans
TWI T-wave inversion
TXA2 thromboxane A2
TZD thiazolidinedione
UA unstable angina
UF ultrafiltration
UFH unfractionated heparin
UI uncertainty interval
UK United Kingdom
UNOS United Network for Organ Sharing
UPR unfolded protein response
URI upper rate interval
URL upper reference limit
USPIO ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide
UTR untranslated region
V/Q ventilation- perfusion
VA venoarterial; ventriculoatrial; vertebral artery
VAD ventricular assist device
VC vena contracta
VCAM vascular cell adhesion molecule
VCD vascular closure device
VCG vectorcardiography
Vco2 carbon dioxide elimination
VE vascular endothelial; volume of expired gas
VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor
VF ventricular fibrillation
VHA Veterans Health Administration
VHD valvular heart disease
VH-IVUS virtual histology intravascular ultrasound
VinV valve-in-valve (therapy)
VKA vitamin K antagonist
VLDL very low-density lipoprotein
Vm membrane potential
VO2 oxygen uptake
VO2max maximal oxygen consumption
VRP ventricular refractory period
VSD ventricular septal defect
VSMC vascular smooth muscle cell
VT ventricular tachycardia
VTC virtual ring to coronary ostial distance
VTE venous thromboembolism
VV ventrovenous
vWF von Willebrand factor
WBC white blood cell
WC waist circumference
WCD wearable cardioverter-defibrillator
WG Wegener granulomatosis
WHF World Heart Federation
WHO World Health Organization
WOEST What is the Optimal Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Therapy in Patients with Oral Anticoagulation and Coronary Stenting
WPW Wolff-Parkinson-White (syndrome)
WRF worsening renal function
XL x-linked
XLR x-linked recessive inheritance
YLDs years lived with disability
YLLs years of life lost

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