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βARK1 βAR kinase 1
1Done-dimensional
2Dtwo-dimensional
3Dthree-dimensional
4Dfour-dimensional
5-HT5-hydroxytryptamine
99mTctechnetium-99m
AAAabdominal aortic aneurysm
AACAmerican College of Cardiology
AACEAmerican Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
AADantiarrhythmic drug
AARarea at risk
AAVantineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody- associated vasculitides
AAV1adeno-associated virus 1
ABIankle-brachial index
ABLablation catheter
ABRarterial-bronchial diameter ratio
ACAanterior cerebral artery
ACATacyl-coenzyme A: cholesterolacyltransferase
ACCAmerican College of Cardiology
ACCFAmerican College of Cardiology Foundation
ACEangiotensin- converting enzyme
ACEIangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor
ACHAAdult Congenital Heart Association
ACHDadult congenital heart disease
ACMarrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy
A-CMPalcoholic cardiomyopathy
ACSacute coronary syndrome
ACTHadrenocorticotropic hormone
ACUITYAcute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy
ADautosomal dominant
ADAAmerican Diabetes Association
ADCMatrial dilated cardiomyopathy
ADHantidiuretic hormone
ADHEREAcute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry
ADMadrenomedullin
ADPadenosine diphosphate
AECabsolute eosinophilic count
AEDautomated external defibrillator
AFatrial fibrillation
AFDAnderson Fabry disease
Afibatrial fibrillation
AFLatrial flutter
AHAAmerican Heart Association
A-HeFTAfrican American Heart Failure Trial
AHFacute heart failure
AHIapnea-hypopnea index
AIaortic insufficiency
A-IABadvanced interatrial block
AIDSacquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AIVRaccelerated idioventricular rhythm
AKIacute renal injury
ALallostatic load; light chain (amyloidosis)
ALLacute lymphoblastic leukemia
AMAAmerican Medical Association
AMCaorto-mitral continuity
AMEapparent mineralocorticoid excess
AMIacute myocardial infarction
AMPadenosine monophosphate
ANAantinuclear antibodies
ANCAantineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
Ang IIangiotensin II
ANPatrial natriuretic peptide
AOaorta
AoPaortic pressure
AoVaortic valve
APanteroposterior
APAHassociated pulmonary arterial hypertension
APCangiogenic progenitor cell
APDaction potential duration
APHRSAsia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Association
apoapolipoprotein
apo(a)apolipoprotein(a)
apoEapolipoprotein E
APSantiphospholipid syndrome
aPTTactivated partial thromboplastin time
APVRanomalous pulmonary venous return
ARadrenergic receptor; aortic regurgitation; autosomal recessive
ARBangiotensin receptor blocker
ARCarrhythmogenic right, left, and biventricular cardiomyopathy
ARFacute rheumatic fever
ARHautosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia
ARICAtherosclerosis Risk in Communities
ARNIangiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibition
ARVCarrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
ASaortic stenosis
ASAalcohol septal ablation; aspirin
ASCVDatherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
ASDatrial septal defect
ASEAmerican Society of Echocardiography
ASNCAmerican Society of Nuclear Cardiology
ASOarteriosclerosis obliterans
ASVadaptive servo-ventilation
AT IIIantithrombin 3
ATantithrombin; atrial tachycardia
ATPadenosine triphosphate; antitachycardia pacing
ATPaseadenosine triphosphatase
ATSarterial tortuosity syndrome
ATTRtransthyretin (amyloidosis)
AUarbitrary units
AUCappropriate use criteria
AVaortic valve; arteriovenous ; atrioventricular
AVAaortic valve area
AVBatrioventricular block
AVIDAntiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibrillators (registry)
AVMarteriovenous malformation
AVNRTatrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia
A-VO2arteriovenous oxygen difference
AVParginine vasopressin
AVRaortic valve replacement
AVRTatrioventricular reentrant tachycardia
B19Vhuman parvovirus B19
BARCBleeding Academic Research Consortium
BATbaroreflex activation therapy
BAVbicuspid aortic valve
BBβ-blocker
BBRbundle-branch reentry
BH4tetrahydroxybiopterin
BiPAPbilevel positive airway pressure
BMbone marrow
BMIbody mass index
BMMNCbone marrow-derived mononuclear cell
BMPbone morphogenetic protein
BMSbare metal stent
BMVballoon mitral valvotomy
BNPB-type natriuretic peptide; brain natriuretic peptide
BOLDBurden of Obstructive Lung Disease study
BPblood pressure
BPDbiliopancreatic diversion with or without duodenal switch
BREATHE-5Bosentan Randomized Trial of Endothelin Antagonist Therapy-5
BRSbaroreflex sensitivity; bioresorbable scaffolds
BrSBrugada syndrome
BSAbody surface area
BTTbridge to transplantation
BVbiventricular
BVSbioresorbable vascular scaffold
Cacalcium
CAcancer antigen
CABGcoronary artery bypass graft
CACcoronary artery calcium/calcification
CACScoronary artery calcium score
CADcoronary artery disease
CAHcongenital adrenal hyperplasia
Caiintracellular calcium
CAIDchronic atrial and intestinal dysrhythmia
CaMKIIcalcium-calmodulin kinase II
cAMPcyclic adenosine monophosphate
CARcoxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor
Carlcardiac apoptosis-related lncRNA
CAScoronary artery stenting
cath labcatheterization laboratory
CAVcardiac allograft vasculopathy
CCAcommon carotid artery
CCBcalcium channel blocker
CCSCanadian Cardiovascular Society; computed tomography-derived coronary artery calcium/calcification score
CCTAcardiac/coronary computed tomography angiography
CDChagas disease
CDCcardiosphere-derived cell
CDLSCornelia de Lange syndrome
CDRIEcardiac device–related infective endocarditis
CDTcatheter-directed thrombolysis
CEAcarcinoembryonic antigen
CEAcarotid endarterectomy
CE-CMRcontrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance
CE-MRAcontrast- enhanced magnetic resonance angiography
CETPcholesteryl ester transfer protein
CFDcolor-flow Doppler; computational fluid dynamics
CFRcoronary flow reserve
CGMcontinuous glucose monitoring
cGMPcyclic 3′,5′-guanosine monophosphate
CHA2DS2-VASccongestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, sex category
CHADS2congestive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke
CHARMCandesartan in Heart Failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity
Chastcardiac hypertrophy-associated transcript
CHDcongenital heart disease; coronary heart disease
CHPcapillary hydrostatic pressure
CIchronotropic incompetence; confidence interval
CICRcalcium-induced calcium release
CIEDcardiac/cardiovascular implantable electronic device
CINcontrast-induced nephropathy
CIPOchronic intestinal pseudo- obstruction
CKcreatine kinase
CKDchronic kidney disease
CK-MBcreatine kinase myocardial band
CLIcritical limb ischemia
CLSclosed loop stimulation
CMcardiomyopathy
CMAPcompound motor action potential
CMDcoronary microvascular disease/dysfunction
CMDScardiometabolic disease staging system
CMLchronic myeloid leukemia
CMPcardiomyopathy
CMRcardiac/ cardiovascular magnetic resonance
cMRIcardiac magnetic resonance imaging
CMSCenters for Medicare and Medicaid Services
cMscentimorgans
CMVclosed mitral valvotomy
CNIcalcineurin inhibitor
CNPC-type natriuretic peptide
CNScentral nervous system
COcarbon monoxide; cardiac output
CO2carbon dioxide
CONCORCONgenital CORvitia
CoNScoagulase- negative staphylococci
COPDchronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COPEColchicine for Acute Pericarditis
COXcyclooxygenase
CPconstrictive pericarditis
CPAPcontinuous positive airway pressure
CPBcardiopulmonary bypass
CPETcardiopulmonary exercise testing
CPRcardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPTPcyclopentyltriazolopyrimidine
CPVTcatecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
CRcardiac rehabilitation
Crcreatinine
CRCDchemotherapy-related cardiac dysfunction
CREDOClopidogrel for the Reduction of Events during Observation; Coalition to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes
CRISCardiac Risk Index Score
CRPC-reactive protein
CRTcardiac resynchronization therapy
CScarcinoid syndrome; coronary sinus
CS2carbon disulfide
CSAcentral sleep apnea; cross-sectional area
CsAcyclosporine A
CSNRTcorrected sinus node recovery time
CSRCheyne-Stokes respiration
CSSChurg-Strauss syndrome
CT FFRcomputed tomography fractional flow reserve
CTcomputed tomography
CTAcomputed tomography angiography
CTCAECommon Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events
CTEPHchronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension
CTLA4cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4
cTncardiac troponin
cTnIcardiac troponin I
cTnTcardiac troponin T
CTPcomputed tomography perfusion
CTPAcomputed tomography pulmonary angiography
CTRCDchemotherapy-related cardiac dysfunction
CUREClopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Ischemic Events
CURRENTClopidogrel Optimal Loading Dose Usage to Reduce Recurrent Events- Organization to Assess Strategies in Ischemic Syndromes
CVcardiovascular
CV-B3coxsackievirus B3
CVDcardiovascular disease
CVRcoronary vasodilatory reserve
CWcontinuous-wave
Cxcircumflex
CYFRA 21-1cytokeratin 19 fragment
CYPcytochrome P450
CZTcadmium-zinc-telluride (detector)
D2BDoor-to-Balloon Initiative
DADdelayed afterpolarization
DAGdiacylglycerol
DALYdisability-adjusted life-year
DAPTdual antiplatelet therapy
DASHDietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
DBPdiastolic blood pressure
DBTdoor-to-balloon time
DCdirect current
DCAdirectional coronary atherectomy
DCDdonation after circulatory death
DCMdilated cardiomyopathy
DCM-DYSdilated cardiodystrophinopathy
DCM-EMDdilated cardioemerinopathy
DCM-LMNAdilated cardio- laminopathy
DENSEdisplacement encoded echoes
DESdrug-eluting stent
DHHSDepartment of Health and Human Services
DHP CCBdihydropyridine calcium channel blocker
DILdrug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus
DMdermatomyositis; myotonic dystrophy
DM-CMPdiabetes mellitus-related cardiomyopathy
DMDDuchenne muscular dystrophy
DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid
DOACdirect-acting oral anticoagulant
DOCAdeoxycorticosterone acetate
DORVdouble-outlet right ventricle
DPP-IVdipeptidyl peptidase IV
DRDahl salt-resistant
DSDahl salt-sensitive; diameter stenosis
DSAdigital subtraction angiography
DSCRDown syndrome critical region
DSEdobutamine stress echocardiography
DTdestination therapy
DTIdirect thrombin inhibitor
DTSDuke treadmill score
DVTdeep vein thrombosis
DWORFdwarf open reading frame
EAeffective arterial elastance
EADearly after depolarization
EARLY ACSEarly Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome
EBCTelectron beam computed tomography
EBVEbstein-Barr virus
ECexcitation- contraction
ECGelectrocardiogram; electrocardiography
ECGIelectrocardiographic imaging
ECMextracellular matrix
ECMOextracorporeal membrane oxygenation
ECVeffective circulatory volume; extracellular volume
EDemergency department; endothelial dysfunction
EDCendocrine- disrupting compound
EDCFendothelium-derived constricting factor
EDHFendothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor
EDPend-diastolic pressure
EDPVRend-diastolic pressure-volume relationship
EDRFendothelium-derived relaxing factor
EDS IVEhlers-Danlos syndrome
EDVend-diastolic volume
EEMexternal elastic membrane
Eesend-systolic elastance
EETepoxyeicosatrienoic (acid)
EFejection fraction
EFFECTEnhanced Feedback for Effective Cardiac Treatment
EFNB2ephrin-B2
EGEearly gadolinium enhancement
eGFRestimated glomerular filtration rate
EGPAeosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis
EHRAEuropean Heart Rhythm Association
ELIenergy loss index
ELISAenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EMBendomyocardial biopsy
EMFendomyocardial fibrosis
EMIelectromagnetic interference
EMSemergency medical services
EMTepithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
ENaCepithelial sodium channel
EndMTendothelial-to-mesenchymal transition
eNOSendothelial nitric oxide synthase type III
EOAeffective orifice area
EPelectrophysiology
EPCendothelial progenitor cell
EPD embolic protection device
EPDCepicardial- derived cells
EPSelectrophysiologic study
ERendoplasmic reticulum
ERAendothelin receptor agonist
ERKextracellular signal-regulated kinase
EROAeffective regurgitant orifice area
ERPeffective refractory period
ERSearly repolarization syndrome
ESCembryonic stem cell; European Society of Cardiology
ESCAPEEvaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization and Effectiveness
ESPVRend-systolic pressure-volume relationship
ESRerythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESRDend-stage renal disease
ESSendothelial shear stress
ESSENCEEfficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Non–Q-Wave Coronary Events
ESVend-systolic volume
ETendothelin
ET-1endothelin-1
ETAendothelin receptor type A
ETBendothelin receptor type B
ETTexercise treadmill test
EVERESTEfficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study With Tolvaptan
FAfemoral artery; fibroatheroma
FACfractional area change
FAPfamilial amyloid polyneuropathy
FCTC Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
FDfractal dimension
FDAUS Food and Drug Administration
FDCMfamilial dilated cardiomyopathy
FDGfluorodeoxyglucose
FFRfractional flow reserve
FFRCTfractional flow reserve computed tomography
FGFfibroblast growth factor
FHfamilial hypercholesterolemia
FHFfirst heart field
FH-Ifamilial hyperaldosteronism type I
FH-IIfamilial hyperaldosteronism type II
FMDfibromuscular dysplasia
FMFfamilial Mediterranean fever
FRDAFriedrich ataxia
FRSFramingham Risk Score
FSEfast spin echo
FTAADfamilial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection
FXafactor Xa
GASgroup A Streptococcus
GBCAgadolinium-based contrast agent
GBDGlobal Burden of Disease
GCAgiant-cell arteritis
GCMgiant cell myocarditis
GCVgreat cardiac vein
GDF-15growth differentiation factor-15
GDPgross domestic product
GEPgene expression profile
GFRglomerular filtration rate
GHgrowth hormone
GIgastrointestinal
GLP-1glucagon-like peptide-1
GLSglobal longitudinal strain
GPglycoprotein
GPIglycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor
GRACEGlobal Registry of Acute Coronary Events
GRKG protein-coupled receptor kinase
GSK-3glycogen synthase kinase-3
GSVgreat saphenous vein
GUSTOGlobal Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries
GWASgenome-wide association studies
GWTGGet with the Guidelines
GWTG-HFGet with the Guidelines-Heart Failure
HAARThighly active antiretroviral therapy
HACEKHaemophilus species, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species
HAIDheritable autoinflammatory disorder
HANAHIV-associated non-AIDS illnesses
HBPHis bundle pacing
HCIIheparin cofactor II
HCMhypertrophic cardiomyopathy
HCMVhuman cytomegalovirus
HCNhyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel
HDhemodialysis
HDAChistone deacetylase
HDEhigh-dose epinephrine
HDLhigh-density lipoprotein
HDL-Chigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol
HEShypereosinophilic syndromes
HETEhydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
HFheart failure
HFpEFheart failure with preserved ejection fraction
HFQRShigh-frequency mid-QRS
HFrEFheart failure with reduced ejection fraction
HHhereditary hemochromatosis
HHVhuman herpesviruses
HIFhypoxia-inducible factor
H-ISDNhydralazine plus isosorbide dinitrate
HITheparin-induced thrombocytopenia
HITShigh-intensity transient signals
HIVhuman immunodeficiency virus
HLAhuman leukocyte antigen
HMG-CoAhydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A
hNET1human norepinephrine transporter 1
HOCMhypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
HPAHheritable pulmonary arterial hypertension
HRhazard ratio; heart rate
HRmaxmaximum heart rate
HRSHeart Rhythm Society
HShemorrhagic stroke
hs-CRPhigh-sensitivity C-reactive protein
hsTnhighly sensitive troponin
I-1(protein phosphatase) inhibitor-1
IABintra-aortic balloon
IABPintra-aortic balloon pump
ICintracoronary
ICacalcium current
ICAinternal carotid artery; invasive coronary angiography
ICa,LL-type calcium current
ICAMintercellular adhesion molecule
ICDimplantable cardioverter-defibrillator; International Classification of Diseases
ICEInternational Collaboration on Endocarditis; intracardiac echocardiography
ICMischemic cardiomyopathy
IDFInternational Diabetes Foundation
IDTCFAintravascular ultrasound– derived thin cap fibroatheroma
IDUinjection drug user
IEinfective endocarditis
IEMinternal elastic membrane
Ifhyperpolarization- activated pacemaker current
IFNinterferon
IFN-βinterferon-β
iFRinstantaneous wave-free ratio
Igimmunoglobulin
IGF-1insulin-like growth factor-1
IHAidiopathic hyperaldosteronism
IHCAin-hospital cardiac arrest
IHDischemic heart disease
IHRintrinsic heart rate
IKpotassium channel
IKASapamin-sensitive SK current
IKrrapid outward potassium current
IKsslow outward potassium current
ILinterleukin
ILDinterstitial lung disease
IMRindex of microcirculatory resistance; ischemic mitral regurgitation
INasodium channel current
INaLlate sodium current
INCXsodium-calcium exchange current
iNOSinducible nitric oxide synthase type II
INRinternational normalized ratio
InsP3inositol 1,4,5- triphosphate
INTERMACSInteragency Registry of Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support
IOMInstitute of Medicine
IP3inositol triphosphate
IPACInvestigations of Pregnancy- Associated Cardiomyopathy
IPAHidiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension
IPCischemic preconditioning
IPFidiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
IPHinferoposterior hemiblock
IPostischemic postconditioning
iPSCinduced pluripotent stem cell
iPSC-CMinduced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte
IQRinterquartile range
IRIischemia/reperfusion injury
IRISimmune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
ISischemic stroke
ISAR-REACTIntracoronary Stenting and Antithrombotic Regimen: Rapid Early Action for Coronary Treatment
ISFCInternational Society and Federation of Cardiology
ISHLTInternational Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation
ISTinappropriate sinus tachycardia
Itotransient outward current
IUGRintrauterine growth restriction
IVintravenous
IVCinferior vena cava
IVDCintraventricular conduction defect
IVIGintravenous immunoglobulin
IVPAintravascular photoacoustic (imaging)
IVUSintravascular ultrasound
IVUS-VHintravascular ultrasound virtual histology
JMHJapanese Ministry of Health
JNCJoint National Committee
JNKc-Jun N-terminal kinase
KmMichaelis constant
KOknockout
KSKaposi sarcoma
LAleft atrial/atrium
LAAleft artery/atrial appendage
LADleft anterior descending (coronary artery)
LAEleft atrial enlargement
LAOleft anterior oblique
LAPlow attenuation plaque
LBBBleft bundle-branch block
LCATlecithin- cholesterol acyl transferase
LCCleft coronary cusp
LCPlipid core plaque
LCSDleft cardiac sympathetic denervation
LCXleft circumflex artery
LDFlaser Doppler fluximetry
LDLlow-density lipoprotein
LDL-Clow-density lipoprotein cholesterol
LDLRlow-density lipoprotein receptor
LDSLoeys-Dietz syndrome
LGBlaparoscopic gastric banding
LGElate gadolinium-enhanced (imaging)
LIMAleft internal mammary artery
LMleft main
LMICslow- and middle-income countries
LMWHlow-molecular-weight heparin
lncRNAlong ncRNA
LOElevel of evidence
LOXlysyl-oxidase
Lp(a)lipoprotein(a)
LPLlipoprotein lipase
LQTSlong QT syndrome
LRIlower-rate interval
LSSlaminar shear stress
LUCASLund University Cardiac Arrest System
LVleft ventricle/ventricular
LVADleft ventricular assist device
LVEleft ventricular enlargement
LVEDPleft ventricular end-diastolic pressure
LVEFleft ventricular ejection fraction
LVHleft ventricular hypertrophy
LVNCleft ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy
LVOTleft ventricular outflow tract
LVOTOleft ventricular outflow tract obstruction
MAmitral annulus; mycotic aneurysm
MACmitral annual/annulus calcification
MACCEmajor adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events
MACEmajor adverse cardiac event
MAFminor allele frequency
MAGEMean Amplitude Glucose Excursions
MAGGICMeta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure
MAPmean arterial pressure
MAPKmitogen-activated protein kinase
Mbpmillion base pairs
MC4Rmelanocortin 4 receptors
MCAmiddle cerebral artery
MCP-1monocyte chemotactic protein-1
MCSmechanical circulatory support
MDCTmultidetector computed tomography
MENmultiple endocrine neoplasia
MESAMulti-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
METmetabolic equivalent
MetSmetabolic syndrome
MFSMarfan syndrome
MHCmyosin heavy chain
MImyocardial infarction
MIMMendelian Inheritance in Man
MIRACLMyocardial Ischemia Reduction with Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering
miRNAmicroRNA
MLAminimum luminal (cross-sectional) area
MLCmyosin light chain
MLC2myosin light chain 2
mLCKmyosin light-chain kinase
MLDminimal lumen diameter
MMPmetalloproteinase
MMP-9matrix metallopeptidase 9
MOGE(S)morphofunctional phenotype, organ(s) involvement, genetic inheritance pattern, etiologic annotation including genetic defect or underlying disease/substrate, and functional status of the disease
MONICAMonitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease
MPmicroparticle
MPAmicroscopic polyangiitis
mPAPmean pulmonary artery pressure
MPHRmaximum predicted heart rate
MPImyocardial perfusion imaging
MPOmyeloperoxidase
MPRmyocardial perfusion reserve
MPTPmitochondrial permeability transition pore
MRmineralocorticoid receptor; mitral regurgitation
MRAmagnetic resonance angiography; mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist
MRImagnetic resonance imaging
MRMPImagnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging
mRNAmessenger ribonucleic acid
MRproADMmidregional pro- adrenomedullin
MRSAmethicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MRVmagnetic resonance venography
MSmitral stenosis
MSAmultiple system atrophy
MSCmesenchymal stem cell
MSHmelanocyte stimulating hormone
mtDNAmitochondrial DNA
mTORmammalian target of rapamycin
MTPmicrosomal triglyceride transfer protein
MTRImaximal tracking rate interval
MUGAmulti-gated acquisition
MVmitral valve
MVAmitral valve area
MVBmixed venous blood
MVCmaximal voluntary contraction
MVOmicrovascular obstruction
MVO2maximal venous oxygen
MVO2myocardial oxygen demand
MVPmitral valve prolapse
MVRmitral valve replacement
MyBP-Cmyosin-binding protein C
Na+-K+ ATPasesodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase
NADPHnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NBTnitroblue tetrazolium
NBTEnonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
NCnoncompacted
NC/Cnoncompacted-to-compacted ratio
NCDnoncommunicable disease
NCDRNational Cardiovascular Data Registries
NCEPNational Cholesterol Education Program
ncRNAnon-protein-coding RNA
ncWntnoncanonical Wnt
NCXNa+-Ca2+ exchanger
NEnorepinephrine
NEFAnonesterified fatty acid
NETneuroendocrine tumor
NFnormal flow
NFATnuclear factor of activated T cells
NGFnerve growth factor
NGSnext-generation sequencing
NHANESNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey/Study
NHISNational Health Interview Survey
NHLBINational Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
NICMnonischemic cardiomyopathy
NIMHDNational Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities
NIPTnoninvasive prenatal testing
NIRFnear-infrared fluorescence
NIRSnear-infrared spectroscopy
NISNationwide Inpatient Sample
NLRP3Nod-like receptor P3
nNOSneuronal nitric oxide synthase type I
NNRTInon-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NOnitric oxide
NOACnew orally active anticoagulant; non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant; novel oral anticoagulant
NOSnitric oxide synthase; nitrous oxide synthase
NOS1nitrous oxide synthase type I
NOS3nitrous oxide synthase type III
nPAlanoteplase
NPHneutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)
NPPAnatriuretic peptide precursor A
NPVnegative predictive value
NPYneuropeptide Y
NRMINational Registry of Myocardial Infarction
NRTnicotine replacement therapy
NRTInucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NSAIDnonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NSFnephrogenic systemic fibrosis
NSTE-ACS
non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome
NSTEMInon-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
NSVTnonsustained ventricular tachycardia
NTGnitroglycerin
NT-proBNPN-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide
NURDnonuniform rotation distortion
NVEnative valve endocarditis
NYHANew York Heart Association
OASISOrganization for the Assessment of Strategies for Ischemic Syndromes
OCToptical coherence tomography
OFDIoptical frequency domain imaging
OFToutflow tract
OHCAout-of-hospital cardiac arrest
OMobtuse marginal
OMIMOnline Mendelian Inheritance in Man
OMToptimal medical therapy
OMVopen mitral valvotomy
OPCABoff-pump coronary artery bypass
OPOorgan procurement organization
OPTIMIZE-HFOrganized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure
ORodds ratio
OSAobstructive sleep apnea
PApulmonary artery
PACpremature atrial contraction; pulmonary arterial catheter
PaCO2partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide
PADperipheral arterial/artery disease; public-access defibrillation
PAFpure autonomic failure
PAHpulmonary artery hypertension
PAHOPan-American Health Organization
PAI-1plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1
PAINpriority risk, advanced risk, intermediate risk, and negative/low risk
PANpolyarteritis nodosa
PaO2arterial oxygen partial pressure
PAPpositive airway pressure
PAPSpyrin-associated periodic fevers/syndrome
PARprotease-activated receptor
PASPpulmonary artery systolic pressure
PAVpercent atheroma volume
PBDEpolybrominated diphenyl ether
PBFpulmonary blood flow
PBMCperipheral blood mononuclear cell
PCphase contrast
PCAposterior cerebral artery
PCBpolychlorinated biphenyl
PCCD progressive cardiac conduction disease
PCDphlegmasia cerulea dolens; primary ciliary dyskinesia
PCIpercutaneous coronary intervention
PCNAPreventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association
PCO2partial pressure of carbon dioxide
PCORIPatient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute
PCrphosphocreatine
PCRpolymerase chain reaction
PCSK9proprotein convertase subtilisin/ kinexin 9
PCTApercutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PCWpulmonary capillary wedge (pressure)
PCWPpulmonary capillary wedge pressure
PDApatent ductus arteriosus
PDEphosphodiesterase
PDE-5phosphodiesterase- 5
PDGFplatelet-derived growth factor
PDK1protein kinase-1
PEpulmonary embolism
PECAMplatelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule
PESprogrammed electrical stimulation
PESIPulmonary Embolism Severity Index
PESPpostextrasystolic potentiation
PETpositron emission tomography
PET-CTpositron emission tomography-computed tomography
PFAAperfluoroalkyl acid
PFOpatent foramen ovale
PFOAperfluorooctanoic acid
PFOSperfluorooctanyl sulfonate
PGC-1βproliferator- activated receptor coactivator 1β
PGH2prostaglandin H2
PGI2prostaglandin I2
PHpulmonary hypertension
PHVprosthetic heart valve
PHVTprosthetic heart valve thrombosis
P-IABpartial interatrial block
PIIINPN-terminal type III collagen peptide
PIOPEDProspective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis
PISAproximal isovelocity surface area
PKAprotein kinase A
PKBprotein kinase B
PKCprotein kinase C
PKC-αprotein kinase C-α
PLATOStudy of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes
PlGFplacenta growth factor
PMparticulate matter; positive remodeling
PMTpacemaker- mediated tachycardia
PMVTpolymorphic ventricular tachycardia
PO2partial pressure of oxygen
POMCproopiomelanocortin
POTSpostural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
PPprotein phosphatase; pulse pressure
PPACAPatient Protection and Affordable Care Act
PPARperoxisome proliferator- activated receptor
pPCIprimary percutaneous coronary intervention
PPCMperipartum cardiomyopathy
PPHprimary pulmonary hypertension
PPIpostpacing interval
PPMIpostprocedural myocardial infarction
PPVpositive predictive value
PRpulmonic regurgitation
PRFpulse repetition frequency
PROSPECTProviding Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree
PROVE ITPravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy
PRPpressure rate product
PSprimitive streak; pulmonic stenosis
PSCpluripotent stem cell
PSGpolysomnography
PSIproliferation signal inhibitor
PSVTparoxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
PTLDpost-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder
PTPpermeability transition pore
PTSpostthrombotic syndrome
PTSDposttraumatic stress disorder
PUREProspective Urban Rural Epidemiology (study)
P-Vpressure-volume
PVpulmonic valve
PVApressure-volume area
PVADparacorporeal ventricular assist device
PVARPpostventricular atrial refractory period
PVCpremature ventricular complex; premature ventricular contraction
PVIpulmonary vein isolation
PVODpulmonary veno-occlusive disease
PVRpulmonary vascular resistance
PWDpulsed-wave Doppler
PXEpseudoxanthoma elasticum
Q(cardiac) output
QAquality assessment
QALYquality-adjusted life-year
QCAquantitative coronary angiography
QIquality improvement
R(cardiac) resistance
RArheumatoid arthritis; right atrial/atrium
RAASrenin-angiotensin- aldosterone system
RAEright atrial enlargement
RAOright anterior oblique
RBBBright bundle-branch block
RBCred blood cell
RCAright coronary artery
RCCright coronary cusp
RCMrestrictive cardiomyopathy
RCTrandomized controlled trial
RDNrenal denervation
REPLACERandomized Evaluation in PCI Linking Angiomax to Reduced Clinical Events
RFradiofrequency; rheumatic fever; rheumatoid factor
RHDrheumatic heart disease
RICremote ischemic conditioning
RIFLErisk, injury, and heart failure, loss, and end-stage renal disease
RIHPrenal interstitial hydrostatic pressure
RISKreperfusion injury salvage kinase
RNAradionuclide angiography; ribonucleic acid
rNAPc2recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2
ROIregion of interest
ROSreactive oxygen species
ROSCreturn of spontaneous circulation
rPAreteplase
RPFrenal plasma flow
RRrelative risk; risk ratio
RT3Dreal-time three-dimensional
rtPArecombinant tissue plasminogen activator
RVright ventricle/ventricular
RVEright ventricular enlargement
RVEDVright ventricular end-diastolic volume
RVNCright ventricular noncompaction
RVOTright ventricular outflow tract
RyGBRoux-en-Y gastric bypass
RYR2ryanodine type 2 receptor
SAsideroblastic anemias; sinoatrial
SACTsinoatrial conduction time
SAECGsignal-averaged electrocardiogram
SAFEsurvivor activator factor enhancement
SAHsubarachnoid hemorrhage; superoanterior hemiblock
SAMsystolic anterior motion
SANsinoatrial node
SAPserum amyloid P component; stable angina pectoris
SASsubaortic stenosis
SAVRsurgical aortic valve replacement
SBPsystolic blood pressure
SCspotty calcifications; subcutaneous
Sca-1stem cell antigen-1
SCADsmall capillary and arteriolar dilatation; spontaneous dissection of the coronary artery
SCDsudden cardiac death
SDstandard deviation
SDBsleep-disordered breathing
SDEsingle-dose epinephrine
SDSsummed differences score
SERCAsarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase
SERCA2sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase
SESsirolimus-eluting stent; socioeconomic status
SFAsubcutaneous fat aspiration
SGsleeve gastrectomy
SGNAstellate ganglion nerve activity
SHFsecond heart field
S-ICDsubcutaneous ICD
SIDSsudden infant death syndrome
SIHDstable ischemic heart disease
SKsmall conductance calcium-activated potassium current; streptokinase
SLEsystemic lupus erythematosus
SNDsinus node dysfunction
SNPsingle nucleotide polymorphism
SNRTsinus node recovery time
SNSsympathetic nervous system
SNVsingle nucleotide variant
SOICRstore overload-induced calcium release
SPsecondary prevention
SPECTsingle-photon emission tomography
sPESISimplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index
SPRINTSystolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial
SQTSshort QT syndrome
SRsarcoplasmic reticulum
SRSsummed rest score
SSSYNTAX Score
SSFPsteady-state free precession
SSSsick sinus syndrome; summed stress score
sST2soluble ST2
SSVsmall saphenous vein
STARTScreening Tool to Alert Doctors to the Right Treatment
STE-ACSST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome
STEMIST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
STIRshort tau inversion recovery
STOPPScreening Tool of Older People’s Potentially Inappropriate Prescriptions
STPsuperficial thrombophlebitis
STSSociety of Thoracic Surgeons
SUDSsudden unexpected death syndrome
SUMO-1small ubiquitin-like modifier 1
SURsulfonylurea receptor
SUVstandard uptake value
SVstroke volume
SVASsupravalvar aortic stenosis
SVCsuperior vena cava
SVRsystemic vascular resistance
SVTsupraventricular tachycardia
SYNERGYSuperior Yield of the New Strategy of Enoxaparin, Revascularization, and Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors
SYNTAXSynergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery
T2Dtype 2 diabetes
TATakayasu arteritis; tricuspid valve
TAAthoracic aortic aneurysm
TAADthoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection
TAHtotal artificial heart
TAPtransmembrane action potential
TAPSEtricuspid annular plane systolic excursion
TARPtotal atrial refractory period
TAVtotal atheroma volume
TAVRtranscatheter aortic valve replacement
TBRtarget-to- background ratio
TCARtranscarotid artery revascularization
TCCD2,3,7,8-tetracloro-p- dibenzodioxin
Tcf/LefT-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor
TCFAthin cap fibroatheroma
TCPO2transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement
TCPVtranscatheter pulmonary valve
TDtime-domain
TDItissue Doppler imaging
TD-OCTtime-domain optical coherence tomography
TDPtorsades de pointes
TEEtransesophageal echocardiography
TENStranscutaneous electric nerve stimulation
TFtissue factor; transcription factor
TGAtransposition of the great arteries
TGFtransforming growth factor
TGF-βtransforming growth factor beta
TGRLtriglyceride-rich lipoprotein
THtherapeutic hypothermia
TIAtransient ischemic attack
TIDtransient ischemic dilation
TIMACSTiming of Intervention in Acute Coronary Syndrome
TIMIthrombolysis in myocardial infarction
TIMPtissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase
TIMP-1tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1
TIPStransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
TKItyrosine-kinase inhibitor
TLE transvenous lead extraction
TLRtoll-like receptor
TMCRtranscatheter mitral valve replacement
TnCtroponin C
TNFtumor necrosis factor
TNF-Itumor necrosis factor inhibitor
TnItroponin I
TNKtenecteplase
TNMtumor-node-metastasis
TnTtroponin T
ToFtetralogy of Fallot
TOFtime of flight
TOKtriangle of Koch
TOPCATTreatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist
TOSThe Obesity Society
TPthromboxane
tPAtissue plasminogen activator
TPDtotal perfusion deficit
TPRtotal peripheral (vascular) resistance
TRtricuspid regurgitation
TRFStime-resolved spectroscopy
TRITONTrial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel
TROtriple rule-out
TStricuspid stenosis
TTCtriphenyl tetrazolium chloride
TTEtransthoracic echocardiography
TTMTherapeutic Temperature Management
TTRtransthyretin
TTSTakotsubo syndrome
TUNELterminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling
TVtricuspid valve; transplant vasculopathy
TVRtranscatheter heart valve
TWAT-wave alternans
TWIT-wave inversion
TXA2thromboxane A2
TZDthiazolidinedione
UAunstable angina
UFultrafiltration
UFHunfractionated heparin
UIuncertainty interval
UKUnited Kingdom
UNOSUnited Network for Organ Sharing
UPRunfolded protein response
URIupper rate interval
URLupper reference limit
USPIOultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide
UTRuntranslated region
V/Qventilation- perfusion
VAvenoarterial; ventriculoatrial; vertebral artery
VADventricular assist device
VCvena contracta
VCAMvascular cell adhesion molecule
VCDvascular closure device
VCGvectorcardiography
Vco2carbon dioxide elimination
VEvascular endothelial; volume of expired gas
VEGFvascular endothelial growth factor
VFventricular fibrillation
VHAVeterans Health Administration
VHDvalvular heart disease
VH-IVUSvirtual histology intravascular ultrasound
VinVvalve-in-valve (therapy)
VKAvitamin K antagonist
VLDLvery low-density lipoprotein
Vmmembrane potential
VO2oxygen uptake
VO2maxmaximal oxygen consumption
VRPventricular refractory period
VSDventricular septal defect
VSMCvascular smooth muscle cell
VTventricular tachycardia
VTCvirtual ring to coronary ostial distance
VTEvenous thromboembolism
VVventrovenous
vWFvon Willebrand factor
WBCwhite blood cell
WCwaist circumference
WCD wearable cardioverter-defibrillator
WG Wegener granulomatosis
WHFWorld Heart Federation
WHOWorld Health Organization
WOESTWhat is the Optimal Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Therapy in Patients with Oral Anticoagulation and Coronary Stenting
WPWWolff-Parkinson-White (syndrome)
WRFworsening renal function
XLx-linked
XLRx-linked recessive inheritance
YLDsyears lived with disability
YLLsyears of life lost

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