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DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION

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Cardiomyopathy is disease of the heart muscle. It is estimated that cardiomyopathy accounts for 5–10% of the heart failure in the 5–6 million patients carrying that diagnosis in the United States. This term is intended to exclude cardiac dysfunction that results from other structural heart disease, such as coronary artery disease, primary valve disease, or severe hypertension; however, in general usage, the phrase ischemic cardiomyopathy is sometimes applied to describe diffuse dysfunction attributed to multivessel coronary artery disease, and nonischemic cardiomyopathy to describe cardiomyopathy from other causes. As of 2006, cardiomyopathies are defined as “a heterogeneous group of diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction that usually (but not invariably) exhibit inappropriate ventricular hypertrophy or dilatation and are due to a variety of causes that frequently are genetic.”1

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The traditional classification of cardiomyopathies into a triad of dilated, restrictive, and hypertrophic was based initially on autopsy specimens and later on echocardiographic findings. Dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies can be distinguished on the basis of left ventricular wall thickness and cavity dimension; however, restrictive cardiomyopathy can have variably increased wall thickness and chamber dimensions that range from reduced to slightly increased, with prominent atrial enlargement. Restrictive cardiomyopathy is now defined more on the basis of abnormal diastolic function, which is also present but initially less prominent in dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Restrictive cardiomyopathy can overlap in presentation, gross morphology, and etiology with both hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies (Table 27-1).

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TABLE 27-1PRESENTATION WITH SYMPTOMATIC CARDIOMYOPATHY
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Expanding information renders this classification triad based on phenotype increasingly inadequate to define disease or therapy. Identification of more genetic determinants of cardiomyopathy has suggested a four-way classification scheme of ...

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