Skip to Main Content

++

INTRODUCTION

++

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the most common cause of death worldwide. Before 1900, infectious diseases and malnutrition were the most common causes, and CVD was responsible for less than 10% of all deaths. In 2010, CVD accounted for approximately 16 million deaths worldwide (30%), including nearly 40% of deaths in high-income countries and about 28% in low- and middle-income countries.

++

THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRANSITION

++

Image not available. The global rise in CVD is the result of an unprecedented transformation in the causes of morbidity and mortality during the twentieth century. Known as the epidemiologic transition, this shift is driven by industrialization, urbanization, and associated lifestyle changes and is taking place in every part of the world among all races, ethnic groups, and cultures. The transition is divided into four basic stages: pestilence and famine, receding pandemics, degenerative and man-made diseases, and delayed degenerative diseases. A fifth stage, characterized by an epidemic of inactivity and obesity, is emerging in some countries (Table 2-1).

++
Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 2-1FIVE STAGES OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRANSITION
++

The age of pestilence and famine is marked by malnutrition, infectious diseases, and high infant and child mortality that are offset by high fertility. Tuberculosis, dysentery, ...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.