Skip to Main Content




A 43-year-old woman presented with severe pain, burning, and swelling of the feet. Her symptoms began 2 days prior after returning from a 7-day camping and hiking trip. She reported that her boots were soaked during this period. Examination revealed that both feet were swollen, acrocyanotic, and cold with decreased capillary refill in all 10 toes; pedal pulses were palpable bilaterally. There were dried up blisters in the bilateral feet and ankles (Figure 88-1). Arterial duplex documented normal posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries. A diagnosis of bilateral immersion foot was made. She was initially treated with bed rest, intravenous antibiotics, elevation, and hydration. Her swelling improved over the next few weeks, but she continued to have symptoms of pain and discomfort which were treated with gabapentin therapy. There was no tissue or limb loss due to early detection and treatment.


The early hyperemic phase of trench foot with edema, cyanosis, and hemorrhagic crusts. (Photograph courtesy of Steven M. Dean, DO.)

Graphic Jump Location



  • Immersion foot syndrome (IFS) is a clinical syndrome that results from damage to peripheral tissues in the extremities exposed to cold in a wet environment for prolonged periods at temperatures just above their freezing point (0-15°C).

  • It has also been referred to as nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI) to differentiate clinically and pathologically from frostbite, which is a freezing cold injury.1

  • It is not uncommon to have both freezing and nonfreezing injuries in the same individual when exposed to harsh conditions for a prolonged period.

  • IFS, besides trench foot, also includes less recognized conditions like warm water immersion foot, shelter limb, and paddy foot (tropical immersion foot). Trench foot is considered a serious military problem for soldiers exposed to cold and wet conditions during battle time,2 but due to infrequent reporting in civilian personnel, it has remained rather obscure as a civilian medical problem.




  • Trench foot was described in World War 1 when trench warfare was employed and soldiers wore wet boots and socks for prolonged periods under cold conditions. Cold injuries have been described as early as the Crimean War of 1853 in the men stuck in trenches filled with mud.

  • During the Second World War, American forces sustained 11,000 cases of trench foot, and the German army performed more than 15,000 am-putations for cold-related injuries.3

  • African Americans are more susceptible to cold weather injury as observed in the American Civil War and also during the cold winter conflict of Ardennes in 1944.

  • Hikers exposed to cold and wet conditions for prolonged periods are at risk if they do not take appropriate care of wet boots and socks. Civilian cases of IFS have also been reported in homeless, older adults, and alcoholics where environmental factors and decreased alertness can ...

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.


About MyAccess

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.

Subscription Options

AccessCardiology Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessCardiology content and resources including textbooks such as Hurst's the Heart and Cardiology Clinical Questions, a unique library of multimedia, including heart imaging, an integrated drug database, and more.

$595 USD
Buy Now

Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessCardiology

24 Hour Subscription $34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription $54.95

Buy Now

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.